Mediescapes India could arrange the
following low cost medical procedures for you.
ENT Procedures routinely done in India
- Micro Laryngeal Surgery
- Block dissections of the neck, Endolymphatic Sac
- Cochlear Implants
- Microsurgery of ear for Deafness, Dizziness, Discharging ear and
- Computer aided Audiometry and Tympanometry
- Infant Screening for early detection of deafness
- Digital hearing aid
- Micro debrider
- Sleep Lab
- Video endoscopy
- Speech-Language Therapy India
P.S.: If the procedure you require is not listed here or if
you require further information's then please send medical records
with doctors diagnosis reports to
firstname.lastname@example.org and we assure you that we will quickly get
back to you.
Dr. Mohan Kameswaran, MS, FRCS, FICS, MAMS, DLO, is a leading
ENT surgeon in India. He graduated from Madras Medical College,
Chennai, being a gold medalist in his undergraduate and postgraduate
days. He got his M.S. from Madras Medical College, Chennai and his
fellowship at the Royal College of surgeons, Edinburgh.
Along with general ENT surgical work, he focused his interests in
Cochlear Implants, Laser Surgery, Endoscopic Sinus surgery and Skull
Base surgery. He is a pioneer in cochlear implant surgery and has
the distinction of doing the 1st CONTOUR Cochlear Implant in the
He was also the first to introduce the KTP/532 laser in ENT surgery
in India, this being the most advanced laser in the world. His
surgical proficiency has made him an outstanding surgeon in skull
He has more than 50 publications in major international journals. He
is an outstanding teacher and has been duly recognized by the Royal
College of Surgeons for which he is an overseas tutor. He was a much
acclaimed teacher when he worked as a professor of ENT in King Saud
University, Saudi Arabia.
He has also conducted several workshops for the benefit of the Post
Graduates students in ENT which included advanced techniques in ENT
surgery. He also has to his credit authored a textbook in ENT
Padmashri Prof. Dr. S. Kameswaran, PhD, DSc, FRCS (Ed & G),
FICS, DLO., is one of the senior most ENT surgeons in India. Most of
the present generation ENT surgeons owe their training to him. This
year he completes 50 years of ENT practice.
Having obtained his MS & DLO he went to the U.K. to obtain his FRCS
from the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Glasgow. As a
keen teacher and guide he held many an academic post and has the
honour of developing the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology in Madras
Medical College where he was the longest serving Director.
He also has the distinction of being the first Ph.D holder in ENT in
India and also received a Doctorate of Science (DSc) Honours Causa
given by the Dr. MGR Medical University in recognition of his long
years of research and original contributions. Nationally he was
awarded the Padmashri by the Government of India and also received
the B.C. Roy award for his contribution to his speciality.
He is the Honorary surgeon to the President of India. He was the
past President of Association of Otolaryngologists of India.
Internationally he has been recognized by many scientific bodies. He
is a fellow of the Belgium Academy of Sciences. He has authored 2
textbooks in ENT and contributed chapters in other international
Dr. P.G. Visvanathan M.S., D.L.O., F.R.A.C.S., F.I.C.S.
Team leader Dr.P.G.Visvanathan is
among the surgeons who have performed the world’s largest series of
operations for deafness caused by ostosclerosis. He introduced a
technique known as small-fenestra stapedotomy for the first time in
India. Another major break-through in ear surgery is the
standardised results of gold and titanium prosthesis treatment to
replace the hearing bones, even in failed cases. Minimally invasive
cochlear implant surgery was also brought to India by him.
Dr.P.G.Visvanathan is invited all over India and abroad to
demonstrate live surgery and deliver guest lectures by institutions.
He is also the President and founder member of the Indian Society of
Dr. Aruna Visvanathan M.B.,M.S.,F.A.G.E.&
Dr. Anjana Visvanathan M.B.,M.S.,F.A.G.E.
Having fulfilled fellowships in Cochlear implant, otology,
voice alteration, endoscopic sinus and laser surgery from
Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, France and USA are experts
in these areas of specialisation. They also head innovative research
Q. What is a Cochlear Implant ?
A. A cochlear implant (Bionic Ear) is an artificial
hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations by
electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear. The Bionic Ear
was pioneered in 1978 by Professor Graeme Clark and his team. The
present day multi-channel cochlear implants consist of 2 main
1) the cochlear implant package and electrode array (or
2) the speech processor and headset.
Q. Cochlear Implant Benefits?
A. Implants are designed only for individuals who attain almost
no benefit from a hearing aid. They must be 12 months of age or
older (unless childhood meningitis is responsible for deafness).
Otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) perform
implant surgery, though not all of them do this procedure. Your
local doctor can refer you to an implant clinic for an evaluation.
The evaluation will be done by an implant team (an otolaryngologist,
audiologist, nurse, and others) that will give you a series of
tests: Ear (otologic) evaluation: The otolaryngologist examines the
middle and inner ear to ensure that no active infection or other
abnormality precludes the implant surgery. Hearing (audiologic)
evaluation: The audiologist performs an extensive hearing test to
find out how much you can hear with and without a hearing aid. X-ray
(radiographic) evaluation: Special X-rays are taken, usually
computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
scans, to evaluate your inner ear bone. Psychological evaluation:
Some patients may need a psychological evaluation to learn if they
can cope with the implant. Physical examination: Your
otolaryngologist also gives a physical examination to identify any
potential problems with the general anesthesia needed for the
Q. Cochlear Surgery?
A. Implant surgery is performed under general anesthesia and
lasts two to three hours. An incision is made behind the ear to open
the mastoid bone leading to the middle ear. The procedure usually
requires a stay in hospital for 2-3 days, depending on the device
used and the anatomy of the inner ear.
Q. Is There Care And Training After The Operation?
A. About one month after surgery, your team places the signal
processor, microphone, and implant transmitter outside your ear and
adjusts them. They teach you how to look after the system and how to
listen to sound through the implant. Some implants take longer to
fit and require more training. Your team will probably ask you to
come back to the clinic for regular checkups and readjustment of the
speech processor as needed.
Q. What Can I Expect from An Implant?
A. Cochlear implants do not restore normal hearing, and benefits
vary from one individual to another. Most users find that cochlear
implants help them communicate better through improved lipreading,
and over half are able to discriminate speech without the use of
visual cues. There are many factors that contribute to the degree of
benefit a user receives from a cochlear implant, including: how long
a person has been deaf, the number of surviving auditory nerve
fibers, and a patient’s motivation to learn to hear. Your team will
explain what you can reasonably expect. Before deciding whether your
implant is working well, you need to understand clearly how much
time you must commit. A few patients do not benefit from implants.
Q. What do we mean by “sinus”?
A. A sinus is an air space in the hollow bones of the
face. The sinuses contain air and communicate with the nose.
Q. What is sinusitis?
A. It is an inflammation of the membrane lining of the paranasal
sinuses. In acute sinusitis, facial pain/pressure, nasal
obstruction, nasal discharge, diminished sense of smell, fever and
cough may occur. It is generally treated with antibiotics and
decongestants. In chronic sinusitis, facial pain/pressure, facial
congestion/ fullness, nasal obstruction, nasal/ postnasal discharge,
diminished sense of smell, fever, headache, bad breath and cough may
be present. The symptoms are usually present for 12 weeks or more.
Q. What are the diagnostic tests for
A. X-ray / CT scan of the paranasal sinuses, diagnostic nasal
endoscopy, allergy testing and blood tests may be required.
Q. What is diagnostic nasal endoscopy?
A. An endoscope is an instrument for the examination of the nose
and sinus drainage areas. The patient’s nasal cavity is anesthetized
with a local anesthetic and diagnostic nasal endoscopy is done.
Signs of obstruction, nasal polyps hidden from routine nasal
examination are visualized. Structural abnormalities that cause
recurrent sinusitis are identified.
Q. What is the course of treatment for
A. Nasal spray / nose drops, decongestants, antibiotics in
patients with bacterial infection, antihistamines for treatment of
nasal allergies are usually prescribed. Patients are advised to
refrain from smoking.
Q. When is sinus surgery necessary?
A. Mucus is formed in the nose and acts as a lubricant. In the
sinus cavities this lubricant is moved across mucous membrane
linings towards the opening of each sinus by millions of cilia
(mobile extensions of a cell). Inflammation from allergy causes
membrane swelling and the sinus opening to narrow, thereby blocking
sinus movement. Endoscopic sinus surgery may be required to correct
this problem. The natural opening of the sinuses is enlarged and
areas of obstruction are removed to allow the normal flow of mucus.
This procedure is highly effective in restoring the normal function
of the sinuses.
Q. What does the surgical procedure entail?
A. The basic endoscopic surgical procedure is performed
under general / local anesthesia. The patient returns to normal
activities within four days and full recovery takes about 4 weeks.
Q. What are the consequences of not treating infected sinuses?
A. Not seeking treatment of sinusitis leads to pain and
discomfort. In rare circumstances, meningitis, brain abscess, loss
of vision, infection of the bone, etc may occur.
Q. What is snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS)?
A. Snoring is a social problem and may be associated with
significant sleep disturbances, waking episodes etc. Individuals who
snore may also be suffering from OSAS. OSAS is characterized by
significant and prolonged interruptions of breathing (airway
obstruction) during sleep. These episodes of cessation of breathing
may be associated with substantial decrease in blood oxygen levels,
irregularities in the heart’s normal beating pattern (cardiac
arrythmias), high blood pressure, and even sudden death. OSAS is a
serious disorder. Symptoms of sleep apnoea include excessive day
time tiredness / sleepiness, a feeling of dullness or napping during
work hours, falling asleep while driving, headaches etc.
Q. What are the investigations for sleep
A. The main investigation required is a polysomnogram (sleep
study) which is an overnight test usually performed in a sleep
laboratory where one simply falls asleep for a number of hours.
During this sleeping time, important processes including ECG, blood
oxygen levels, number and duration of apnoeic spells are monitored.
A sleep MRI is also essential to identify the level of obstruction.
Q. What is the treatment for Obstructive
Sleep Apnoea Syndrome?
A. The treatment can be nonsurgical (weight loss, CPAP etc) or
surgical (e.g. LAUP). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) -
pressurized air is administered by way of a face mask which is worn
during sleep. This maintains adequate pressure to overcome airway
obstruction. In Laser assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (LAUP), a
laser beam is utilized to reduce the redundant tissue in the back of
Q. What is cholesteatoma?
A. A cholesteatoma is a serious infection which affects
the ear. The skin of the ear drum grows into the middle ear and
becomes a cholesteatoma. This looks like an onion peel of white skin
formed into a ball. It can destroy the bones of hearing as it grows.
Symptoms include hearing loss, recurring ear discharge which may be
foul smelling. It tends to actively erode bone and may cause nerve
deafness, imbalance and dizziness. The thin plate of bone that
separates the roof of the ear from the brain can also be eroded by
cholesteatoma. This exposes the covering of the brain. In extreme
situations, it can lead to brain infection and other serious
complications. Cholesteatoma is a serious condition and when
diagnosed requires prompt treatment. Polyps (growth of inflamed
tissue) are often present in the ear with cholesteatoma. The
treatment required for cholesteatoma is micro ear surgery.
Q. What is micro ear surgery?
A. Structures of the ear are very small. The surgery is usually
performed with an operating microscope which enlarges the view of
the ear structures sufficiently so the surgeon can perform the
delicate tasks needed. The incision is made behind or in front of
the ear. The wall separating the middle ear from the mastoid (bone
behind the ear) is removed. Disease clearance is done. Hearing
reconstruction is then done. The surgery results in a so called open
cavity which requires long term follow-up.
Q. Head and neck cancers?
A. Head and neck cancers actually include many different
malignancies. The way a particular cancer behaves depends on the
site it arises (primary site). The main parts of the head and neck
include oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, nasopharynx,
paranasal sinuses, hypopharynx, larynx, thyroid and salivary gland.
Most common types of cancers in the head and neck is squamous cell
carcinoma, the others being lymphoma, sarcoma, salivary gland
tumours etc. Typical symptoms include a lump or sore that does not
heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty in swallowing
or breathing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice. Diagnosis of
head and neck cancers is by a complete physical examination, CT/MRI
scan, endoscopy and tissue biopsy. The three main types of treatment
for head and cancers are surgery, radiotherapy (high energy X-ray to
kill cancer cells) and chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs). Surgical
treatment consists of removal of cancer and some of the healthy
tissue around it. Lymph nodes in the neck may also be removed.
Optimal combination of the three treatment modalities for a patient
with a particular head and neck cancer depends on the site of the
cancer, extent of the disease and medical condition of the patient.
Rehabilitation and regular follow-up care are important part of the
Q. What is Phonosurgery?
A. It is a surgical procedure that maintains, restores or
enhances the human voice. Phonosurgery includes phonomicrosurgery
(microsurgery of the vocal folds done through an endoscope),
laryngoplastic phonosurgery (open neck surgery that restructures the
cartilaginous framework of the larynx - voice box), soft tissue
laryngeal injection (injection into the larynx of medications as
well as synthetic and organic biologic substances) and reinnervation
(restoration of the nerve supply) of the larynx. Use of the
microscope during laryngeal surgery enhances precision. The results
of surgery are excellent but have to be followed up with voice rest,
hygiene and rehabilitation to get good long-term results of voice
Q. Laser surgery in ENT
A. The laser has proved to be a valuable tool in ENT due
to its precision, blood less dissection with minimal damage to
surrounding tissues, and its ability to produce minimal
postoperative edema, pain and scarring. The CO2 laser has been the
workhorse of ENT surgery for many years. It is a good cutting tool
but a poor coagulator. The KTP /532 laser cuts nerve endings
smoothly, hence decreases postoperative pain. Its precision, with
decreased damage to surrounding structures leads to decreased
postoperative edema, pain and scarring. It is an ideal laser for ENT
and Head and Neck surgery. In the ear, the laser can be used to
treat disorders of the outer ear such as stenosis (narrowing) and
benign tumors, removal of disease in the middle ear, stapedotomy (an
operation done in patients with a fixed bone in the middle ear
causing hearing loss). In the nose, the laser can be used to remove
disease from the nose and sinuses, tumors, etc. In the throat, it
has many applications such as tonsillectomy, LAUP (removal of
redundant tissue in the back of the throat in patients with snoring
and sleep apnoea), tumors – both benign and malignant, cysts,
narrowing in the windpipe etc. With the introduction of lasers in
ENT, a majority of ENT surgeries have become day care procedures.
Keyhole Surgeries of the Nose
Keyhole surgeries of the nose give us surgeons
an excellent visualization of tissue to avoid any errors. The scope
gives us an end to end, 3D view that helps us ensure a complete
removal of the disease, leaving no chance for recurrence.
Why Keyhole Surgery?
For one, there is no cutting wound. In conventional surgeries we
cut through the nose or the inside of the upper lip. There is no
ugly facial scar. Repeated surgery can be avoided and so can other
life-threatening complications. As there is no incision you will not
experience the blood loss of conventional surgery. Also there is no
major trauma to the eyes. There is only minimal access to the brain,
so major surgical stress is avoided. Recovery too takes place in a
Surgeries of the Nose
Primary sinus surgery involves surgery for repeated sinusitis,
nasal polyposis complications of sinusitis, headache and facial
pain, fungal infection of sinuses, early detection of cancers and
surgery for correction of CSF leak.
Breathe Easy – Bronchoscopy is here
The Bronchoscope is an endoscope used to
visualize the airway (windpipe). Bronchoscopy is mainly used for the
diagnosis of suspected pulmonary infections like TB, pneumonia, lung
abscess etc. Through Bronchoscopy, it is possible to obtain a sample
from the exact side of the affected lung. By analyzing the sample
the infection can be treated most effectively.
Crucial for Diagnosis
Bronchoscopy is the primary diagnostic tool for patients with
suspected lung cancer and those coughing out blood (haemoptysis). In
cancer, biopsy of the lung, tissue can be extracted by this method,
avoiding the need for opening the chest wall. Certain lung cancers
affecting the airway can also be treated by laser therapy and
brachytherapy using this method.
Unexplained and prolonged cough, haemoptysis, change in
character of cough, uncontrolled wheezing, may require Bronchoscopy
to find the cause. Sometimes cancers, or a foreign body that may be
the cause for the above symptoms, can be diagnosed and treated by
this simple procedure, alone. Foreign bodies like a peanut, denture,
chalk, etc, which have been aspirated into the airway can be removed
without any surgical intervention.
This procedure is being done as an outpatient method. No
anaesthesia is required. It is pain free. Absolutely no incision is
needed as the Bronchoscope is passed through the nose or mouth into
the airway. The ease of access into the lung, direct visualization,
flexibility simplicity of use which allows rapid examination even in
restless/distressed patients, makes Bronchoscopy the procedure of
choice in almost all kinds of lung diseases.
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