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Opinion from Mediescapes India ?.

1. Write to us your country / city name from where you are seeking medical opinion with your full contact details.

2. Send by email or by post copy of recent clinical observations / diagnosis / medical report translated into English.

3. Send images in JPEG file format.

4. end us recent X-Ray's / CT Scan / MRI Scan's / Echocardiogram / Angiogram / Pathological Reports or a summery of observations on them.

“I found out that I needed an operation for a back problem which was causing severe pain to my left leg from the sciatic nerve. After speaking to my GP and realizing I was getting nowhere I decided to take the matter into my own hands as I could hardly walk. After speaking to private consultants and realizing that without private medical insurance I was not going to be seen to in this country without shelling out around £20,000 I decided to look elsewhere. I decided to look into having the operation privately in India and was fortunate to come across Mediescapes India. From my initial enquiry when I e-mailed my MRI results to Mediescapes India I was amazed ..more.”
- A patient from UK

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Gynecology & Obstetrics FAQ's
Suggested Hospitals / Clinics
Our Medical Consultant’s Panel

What is cancer of the vulva? What are its causes and risk factors ?
Cancer of the vulva is a rare type of gynecological cancer found in the tissues of the vulva, or outer vagina. It is found primarily in women over fifty, but it is seen with increasing frequency in women under 40 as well. Histologically, vulvar cancer is predominantly squamous cell in type, although other types including basal cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, sarcoma, histiocytosis X, or malignant melanoma do occur. Evidence suggests that HPV is a risk factor for vulvar cancer and its development, in many cases, is preceded by condyloma or squamous dysplasias. Women who have constant itching and changes in the color or appearance of the vulva are at high risk for developing vulvar cancer.

What is cancer of the vagina? What are its causes and risk factors ?
Cancer of the vagina is a rare form of gynecological cancer found in the tissues of the vagina. There are two primary types of vaginal cancer with different pathogeneses and natural histories. Because they have different routes of spread, they are treated differently. Eighty-five per cent are squamous cell type, usually found in older women. Adenocarcinomas are less common, and are typically found in younger women. Women whose mothers took DES (diethylstilbestrol) while pregnant are at risk for the rare, clear cell adenocarcinomas. Vaginal melanomas, sarcomas, and adenosquamous varieties are rare, but also reported.

What is ovarian cancer ?
Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that can begin in one or both ovaries. These tumors are made of abnormal cells that divide and create additional cells at a much faster rate than normal cells. These abnormal cells can then invade surrounding tissue and/or travel to other areas of the body.

What is GTD (Gestational Trophoblastic Disease) ?
GTD is a very rare form of gynecological cancer. Symptoms may include vaginal bleeding, nausea, elevated hCG levels in the blood, and a positive urine pregnancy test.

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What is cancer of the fallopian tubes? What are its causes and risk factors ?
Fallopian tube cancer is defined as that which starts within the fallopian tubes, a pair of ducts that transport eggs from ovary to uterus. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube is very rare, comprising only 1-2% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported worldwide, and as many as 90% of tubal cancers are metastatic from other sites. Since the disease is so uncommon, little is known about its causes and/or risk factors, and treatment approaches have been taken from experiences with ovarian cancer. Adenocarcinomas are the most commonly found cell-types, but leiomyosarcomas and transitional cell carcinomas are reported. Unlike ovarian cancer, grade of the histology appears to have little significance in overall survival.

What are the different uterine cancers ?
The most common type of uterine cancer begins in the endometrium, or lining of the uterus. Fibroids and endometriosis are usually not associated with cancer, but hyperplasia (an increase in the number of cells lining the uterus) is considered a precancerous condition. It can develop into cancer and should be carefully monitored. If not treated, cancer cells can break away into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, spreading to distant parts of the body (metastasis). Invasive cancer cells can also spread into organs and tissue near the tumor. Uterine sarcoma is a different type of uterine cancer. This develops in the uterine muscle. This is a much rarer form, and usually is seen after menopause.

What is the difference between in-situ and invasive cancer ?
Carcinoma or adenocarcinoma "in situ", pronounced "in sy-too" (from Latin, meaning "in place"), refers to a pre-cancerous condition. The cells are abnormal, but they are confined to where they belong; they haven't begun to invade other areas. When abnormal cells from the surface of the cervix (the epithelium) grow through the membrane separating the surface from the deeper tissues of the cervix, then it is considered an invasive cancer.

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